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How do I do concatenation in VHDL? What is the symbol for it?

3 Answers

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VHDL Concatenate

Quick Syntax

Symbol: &
-- concatenate two signals
output <= input1 & input2;

-- concatenate two 0's on the right side with a signal output <= input1 & "00";

-- concatenate two 0's on the left side with a signal output <= "00" & input2;

Purpose

Concatenation in VHDL is combining multiple items into one item. The requirement is that the output must match the same bit width as the total bit width of the items that you are concatenating.

It is used a lot in VHDL designs. You will commonly see it in write and read registers that support bus interfaces like PCI, VME, etc. These buses are often 32-bit or 64-bit and each register can control multiple signals that might be 1-bit or multiple bits wide.

So in order to read a full 32-bit register that represents multiple signals, the regsiter read must concatenate all of these signals together to form the full 32-bit register.

Concatenation is most commonly used for std_logic and std_logic_vector types.

Best Practices

1. The concatenation symbol is: &

2. Concatenation is very common and used everywhere in VHDL.

3. Make sure that your output bit width matches the total of the inputs that you are concatenating.

4. Pay attention to clock domains of your inputs. Don't make the tools guess which clock domain the output should abide by on timing constraints. Do proper clock domain crossing first before you concatenate items from different clock domains.
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by (500 points)

The VHDL concatenation symbol is '&'. It's used for joining 2 elements of data into a single long element.

Example :

signal x : std_logic_vector ( 3 downto 0 ) ;
signal y : std_logic_vector ( 11 downto 0 ) ;
signal joined_x_y : std_logic_vector ( 15 downto 0 ) ;

joined_x_y <= x & y ;
0 votes
by (500 points)

This is ampersand - &. Concatenation is used to combine several items together. Because VHDL is strongly typed, it requires that all inputs must be of either the same base type or the same base type with array element base type. And the width of the concatenation's result needs to fit the overall width of all concatenated signals. Example:

phase_offset_en_d <= phase_offset_en_d(phase_offset_en_d'high-1 downto 0) & phase_offset_en_i;

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