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0 votes
in Verilog by (220 points)

How do you use for loops in Verilog?

3 Answers

0 votes
by (240 points)

For loops in Verilog are almost exactly like for loops in C or C++. But to group statements the begin-end block is used and the ++ and -- operators are not supported. The full definition of how it exactly work is from the Verilog standard:

"Controls execution of its associated statement(s) by a three-step process, as follows:
a) Executes an assignment normally used to initialize a variable that controls the number of loops executed.
b) Evaluates an expression. If the result is zero, the for loop shall exit. If it is not zero, the for loop shall execute its associated statement(s) and then perform step c). If the expression evaluates to an unknown or high-impedance value, it shall be treated as zero.
c) Executes an assignment normally used to modify the value of the loop-control variable, then repeats step b)."

Simply put, a for loop repeats the statement as long as the loop control variable changes in a given range and satisfies that range.

    always @(posedge clk) begin
.................................

waddr_tmp = 0;
if (grant > 0) begin
for (i = $clog2(CHANNEL_NUM)-1; i >= 0; i = i - 1) begin
if (grant[i])
waddr_tmp = waddr_tmp + (mode_i ? (2 << i) : (SINGLE_SIZE << i));
end
end
waddr <= waddr_incr + waddr_tmp;

.................................
end
In some cases it is possible to code an if-else chain using a for-loop:
  channel_start <= 0;
for (int i = LINE_NUM; i >= 0; i--) begin if (received[1][i]) channel_start <= i;
end
or more interesting case with cyclic steps through channels:
  if (timestamp_shift_en) begin
timestamp_shiftreg_cnt <= timestamp_shiftreg_cnt + 1;
timestamp_shiftreg[grant] <= {timestamp_shiftreg[grant][SINGLE_SIZE*16-1-16:0], 16'h0};
timestamp_user_data[grant] <= {16'h0, timestamp_user_data[grant][SINGLE_SIZE*16-1:16]};
if ((timestamp_shiftreg_cnt == 4 && mode_i == 1'b0) || (timestamp_shiftreg_cnt == 1 && mode_i == 1'b1)) timestamp_shift_en <= 0;
if (timestamp_shiftreg_cnt == 0) timestamp_shift_en_req[grant] <= 0;
end else begin
for (i = (JOIN_SUBFRAMES ? 0 : CHANNEL_NUM-1); i >= 0; i = i -1) begin
if (timestamp_shift_en_req[(i+(grant+1)%CHANNEL_NUM)%CHANNEL_NUM]) begin
timestamp_shift_en <= 1'b1;
timestamp_shiftreg_cnt <= 0;
grant <= (i+(grant+1)%CHANNEL_NUM)%CHANNEL_NUM;
end
end
end
0 votes
by (240 points)

A For loop is used to replicate hardware logic a specific number of times. An iterative variable is used to set the number of times the loop will run. An initial value of that variable is set and then it is incremented or decremented in steps until it stops satisfying a particular condition. The syntax of the for loop is given below:

for (<initial_condition>; <condition>; <step_assignment>) begin
// Statements
end
Suppose an integger type variable, i, is defined. This variable can be used as iterative variable of the for loop.
for (i = 0; i < 10; i = i + 1) begin
$display ("Current loop#%0d ", i);
end
In the above code, the statement inside the for loop runs 10 times. The initial value of 'i' is set at zero, then it increments by 1 with each execution and the loop stops executing when 'i' becomes equal to 10.
0 votes
by (200 points)

In the Verilog language, it's very limited to use the for loop. It is usually used with "generate" like the example attached. And we need to be careful when using a for loop, because of how it translates to hardware.

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